A group of scientists, led by Doctor Renato Rozental, a researcher from both Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz) and Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, developed an inflatable skullcap capable of saving the lives of thousands of babies with perinatal asphyxia – lack of oxygen in the brain – as well as reducing or even avoiding permanent neurological sequelae. The skullcap is made of two plastic blades that are flexible and superposed. The borders unite so as to form an internal space that, when inflated with carbon dioxide (CO2), molds to the newborn’s head forming a sort of helmet. This cap was designed to cool the child’s brain by stopping abnormal electrical activities caused by the lack of oxygen that can cause irreversible damage or even death. You can read more about this on the website of UFRJ Agency for Innovation.